牛牛美文 感人故事 英语帮帮帮你一次性讲清楚英语句子结构(英语 句子结构 句剩)
2021-05-19 06:31 星期三

英语帮帮帮你一次性讲清楚英语句子结构(英语 句子结构 句剩)

翻译学家提出英语“重形合”而汉语“重意合”,说明英语注重句子结构的严谨性与完整性,而汉语注重句子意思,而不苟于形。搞清英语句子结构不是刻意追求语法,而是英语本身的要求。

英语帮帮帮你一次性讲清楚英语句子结构(英语 句子结构 句剩)

一、句子五种基本结构五种基本结构是以句子结构为基础分出来的五种类型。这五种结构之所以为基本结构,一它是英语语句子的主杆,二是英语所有的句子都是通过这五种基本结构变化而来的,掌握句子五种基本结构是分析和理解英语句子的基础。下面我们来学习这五种句子基本结构。五种基本结构是以三类动词为基础分出来的,我们把动词分为,连系动词,不及物动词和及物动词三类。

1、主+系+表

You (主)look(系) young(表) in that dress.

Food(主) goes(系) bad(表) more easily in summer.

She(主) got (系)angry (表)just because of a joke.

2、主+谓

I(主) got up (谓)early that morning.

His father(主) works(谓) in a big company.

She(主) didn’t go(谓) home until seven p.m.

3、主+谓+宾

I(主) like(谓) English(宾) very much.

She(主) studies(谓) English (宾)very hard.

Who(主) broken(谓) the window(宾)?

4、主+谓+间接宾语+直接宾语

He(主) told(谓) us(间宾) an interesting story(直宾).

Miss Gao(主) taught(谓) us(间宾) English(直宾) last term.

My father(主) bought(谓) me(间宾) an English-Chinese dictionary(直宾).

5、主+谓+宾+宾语补语

We (主)should make(谓)our city (宾)more and more beautiful(宾补).

Our teacher(主) told (谓)us(宾) to stay(宾补) here.

The workers(主) found(谓) it(宾) impossible(宾补) to finish the work in two weeks.

二、 句子特殊结构1.there be结构

汉字“有”有多层含义,可以表示所属关系,相当于英语动词“have”,如:他有一本书(He has a book),也可以表示条件,相当于英语介词“with”,如:没有水人不能活(Man cannot live without water)。“有”还可以表示存在,相当于英语句型:there be ……。

There be句型,表示某处(某地)存在有某人或某物。there be句型中,be动词的人称和数量要与后面的第一个主语保持一致,如:There is a book and some pens on the desk. There are some pens and a book on the desk.

2、疑问句的倒装结构

句子的种类有不同的分类方法,按语气分可以分为,陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句四种。英语疑问句是用来表达询问与请求,以及表达语气的怀疑与肯定的句子,疑问句又可分为一般疑问句、特殊疑问句和附加疑问句。一般疑问句是由部分倒装加上问号构成,即谓语的一部分(助动词与情态动词)提到主语前面加上问号构成。

例如:

陈述句:He is the boy you are looking for.

疑问句:Is(助动词) he the boy you are looking for?

陈述句:I have finished typing the letter.

疑问句:Have(助动词) you finished typing the letter?

陈述句:I can follow you.

疑问句:Can(情态动词) you follow me?

陈述句:She likes English.

疑问句:Does (助动词)she like English?

特殊疑问句是先把要询问部分置于句首,再由部分倒装加上问号构成,询问部分可以是主语、宾语、表语和状语。当询问部分为主语时,谓语不用部分倒装语序。例如:

询问主语:

Who left his umbralla in the classroom?

What made you so sad?

询问宾语:

What were (助动词)you doing this time yesterday?

Whom would (情态动词)you like to turn to for help when you meet a problem.

询问表语:

What’s your father?

Who is (助动词)the man with glasses over there?

询问状语:

When are(助动词)you leaving for Paris?

Where should(助动词I put my shoes?

Why didn’t(助动词) you come yesterday?

How often do (助动词)you go for a walk along the river?

附加疑问句是把疑问部分置于句末的疑问句,附加疑问句是为了加强或者是缓和语气。祈使句是用于表达命令、请求、劝告、警告、禁止等的句子,祈使句语气一般都比较强,在祈使句末尾加上疑问可以起到缓和语气的作用,比如:Let’s go climbing, shall we? We forgot to bring our tickets, but please let us enter, will you?

如果附加疑问句是为了加强语气,使语气更加肯定,附加疑问部分要求与句子前面部分语气相反,也就是说前面如果是肯定,则疑问部分要用否定,前面如果前面是否定,则疑问部分要用肯定。例如:

It’s hot today ,isn’t it ?

There is a beautiful park near your school, isn\’t there?

David never fights with his classmate, does he?

3、感叹句结构

英语感叹句是由What/ How +被感叹的部分+句子其它成分+感叹号构成。被感叹部分可以是句子的宾语、状语、和表语。

感叹宾语:What+宾语+句子其它成分

What a good time they had yesterday.

What a job they did!

感叹状语:How+副词+句子其它成分

How hard the students are working!

How fast she can run!

感叹表语:What+名词表语+句子其它成分;How+形容表语+句子其它成分

What beautiful flowers they are !=How beautiful the flowers are!

What a clever boy he is != How clever the boy is!

How interesting the story is!= What an interesting story it is!

How delicious the food is != What a delicious food it is!

4、从句宾语前置

宾语从句的连接代词和定语从句的关系代词既起到连接主句与从句的作用,又要在从句中充当主语或宾语,当宾语从句的连接代词和定语从句的关系代词在从句中做宾语时,为了连接主句与从句,连接代词和关系代词要置于从句主语前。

例如:

Can you tell me what (从句宾语)you(从句主语) saw(从句谓语)?

We talked about the persons and things that(从句宾语) we(从句主语) remembered(从句谓语).

三、 复合句与英语句子结构特点英语复合句是在五种基本句型的基础上,按五种基本句型算,含有两个及两个以上单句的句子为复合句。英语复合句之间要用连接词连接,由两个单句组成的复合句用一个连接词连接,由三个单句组成的复合句用两个连接词连接,以此类推。

英语句子的一个特点是:词可以做句子成分,短语可以做句子成分,句子也可以做句子成分。当一个句子做为另一个句子的成分时,作为另一个句子成分的句子就是从句。也就是说构成英语句子成分的语言单位不只是词一级,还可以是短语,甚至是句子一级。比如句子成分中的主语:I don\’t like the way you speak. (代词);To master a language is not as difficult as it is said.(非限定动词短语);What he said made his friend unhappy.(从句)。

英语句子的另一个结构上的特点就是内循环,即成分中还可以有成分,从句中还可以有从句。 英语句子结构是一种向内循环层级结构,也就是说成分中还可带成分,从句中还可以有从句。比如:Many teenagers are surprised to learn that when you exercise, your body produces some chemicals that make you feel relaxed and increase your ability to concentrate when you study.这个句子中的不定式to learn为状语,这个状语又带了一个宾语,而且是句子作为宾语,宾语从句里还有状语从句(when you exercise)和定语从句(that make you feel relaxed and increase your ability to concentrate)。

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