牛牛美文 情感日志 奇速英语:时态 | 一般过去时(讲解及练习)
2021-05-20 05:55 星期四

奇速英语:时态 | 一般过去时(讲解及练习)

今天我们要学习的是一般过去时。

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1

概念引入

I. 何时使用一般过去时?

一般过去时表示在过去某个时间里发生的动作或存在的状态。

例如:Lin Tao left for Shanghai at 8:00 yesterday morning.林涛昨天早上八点去上海了。

He was ill last night.昨晚他生病了。

它可以具体分为以下几种情况:

1)表示过去经常或反复发生的动作。

例如:Li Tao always went to work by bus last term.上学期李涛一直乘公共汽车上班。

2)表示已故的人曾经做过的事情。

例如:Lao She wrote many great works. 老舍写过许多脍炙人口的作品。

3)表示过去所发生的一系列的动作。

例如:The old man came into the room, took off his clothes and went to bed.这位老人走进屋,脱下衣服,然后上床睡觉了。

Mr. Black got up at six o'clock this morning, dressed, had breakfast, and went to work.

布莱克先生今天早上六点起床、穿衣服、吃饭,然后去上班了。

II.如何识别一般过去时?

每个时态都会有其独特的标志性词语(主要是时间状语),我们可以称其为“标志词”。一般过去时常见的标志词有:

  1. yesterday, the day before yesterday.

  2. last week / year / month / term …(简称last系列)

  3. two hours ago, three years ago, a moment ago…(简称ago系列)

  4. in / on + 过去的年/月/日,如 in 1999, on April, 2005

  5. just now, once upon a time, one day…

2

用法讲解

Ⅰ. be动词的一般过去时。

在使用一般过去时的句子中,如果句子的谓语是be动词,就要将be动词变为过去式。主语是第一、第三人称单数,be用was;如果是第二人称或者其他人称复数,be用were。它的一般疑问句是把was(were)提到句首;否定句是在was(were)的后面加not。特殊疑问句是在一般疑问句的前面加特殊疑问词。

例如:My mother was busy last night. 我的妈妈昨天晚上很忙。(肯定句)

We weren’t at school at that time. 那时我们不在学校。(否定句)

Were you at home yesterday? 你昨天在家吗?(一般疑问句)

Where were you last night? 你昨天晚上在哪里?(特殊疑问句)

注意:there be句型中be动词的使用。

当主语是单数名词或者不可数名词时be动词用单数;当主语是名词复数时be动词用复数。

例如:There was a strong wind just now. 刚才有一阵强风。

There were many people in the supermarket last night.

昨天晚上超市有很多人。

Ⅱ. 行为动词的一般过去时。

1)基本用法。

谓语动词是行为动词的句子,在一般过去时中,要将作谓语的行为动词变成过去式。行为动词的过去式,一般情况下是在动词原形的后面加-ed构成,没有人称和数的变化。

例如:I wanted to have a rest just now. 我刚才想休息一下。

它的否定句要在谓语动词的前面加助动词didn’t,此时,谓语动词要变成原形。

例如:My mother watched TV last night. 我妈妈昨天晚上看电视了。(肯定句)

My mother didn’t watch TV last night. 我妈妈昨天晚上没有看电视。(否定句)

2)行为动词的过去式的构成。

在一般过去时的句子中,行为动词过去式分为规则变化和不规则变化。

规则变化有:

(1) 一般在动词的后面加-ed。例如:work-worked,look-looked。

(2) 以字母e结尾的动词,直接在词尾加-d。例如:like-liked,live-lived。

(3) 以重读闭音节结尾并且词尾只有一个辅音字母的动词,先双写这个辅音字母,再加-ed。例如:stop-stopped。

(4) 以辅音字母+y结尾的动词,先把字母y变为i再加-ed。例如:worry-worried。

不规则变化有:

do/does-did,go-went,write-wrote,see-saw,

begin-began,have/has-had等。

注意:在英语中不符合变化规则的词很多,要特殊记忆。

例如:They left the farm a moment ago. 他们刚刚离开农场。

He swam in the river and had a good time.

他在小河里游泳并且玩得很开心。

3)行为动词的一般疑问句。

谓语动词是实义动词,一般疑问句要借助于助动词did。句型为:Did + 主语 + 动词原形 + 宾语?其回答仍借助于助动词,肯定回答用did,否定回答用didn’t。例如:

— Did he watch TV last night? 他昨晚看电视了吗?

— Yes, he did. / No, he didn’t. 是的,他看了。/ 不,他没有看。

4)行为动词的特殊疑问句。

行为动词的特殊疑问句句式是:“疑问词 + did + 主语 +实义动词 + 其他?”

What did you do the day before yesterday? 前天你们做什么了?

When did the Green family arrive? 格林一家什么时候到达的?

拓展:常见的特殊疑问词有:

人用who,whom;物用what;地点用where;时间用when,what time;原因用why;频率用how often;长度用how long;距离用how far等。

例如:They went there last Sunday. (对划线部分提问)

When did they go there?

The boy stayed in Beijing for two years. (对划线部分提问)

How long did the boy stay in Beijing?

3

巩固练习

Ⅰ. 单项选择。

1. My mother ______ an important meeting last night.

A. has    

B. have    

C. had    

D. will have

2. -_______ your sister _______ her homework yesterday?

-No, she didn’t.

A. Does; does   

B. Did; do   

C. Did; did   

D. Is; did

3. Your sister _______ her friend last Sunday.

A. isn’t visit     

B. doesn’t visit    

C. didn’t visit    

D. won’t visit

4. -When ____ you _____ this article? - I ______ it last week.

A. will; write; write   

B. do; write; wrote 

C. did; write; wrote  

D. did; write; write

5. Tommy is looking for the watch his uncle ____ him last month.  

A. gives    

B. gave    

C. to give    

D. has given

6. — When ______ you _______ the bike?

— Last month.

A. have; bought

B. had; bought

C. do; buy

D. did; buy

7. — _____ was your vacation?

— It was great.

A. Where

B. How

C. What

D. When

8. — ______ did they go last Friday evening?

— In the park.

A. Which

B. When

C. What

D. Where

9. — When ______ you come here?

— Two years ago. I have been here for two years.

A. do

B. will

C. did

D. have

10. — Hi, Kate. You look tired. What’s the matter?

— I ______ well last night.

A. didn’t sleep

B. don’t sleep

C. haven’t slept

D. won’t sleep

11. I ______ late for the class because I ______ill yesterday.

A. were; were    

B. am; were    

C. am; am    

D. was; was

12. There ______ a film in the cinema last night.

A. is    

B. was    

C. were    

D. are

13. It ______ cold yesterday, but it ______ warm today.

A. is; is    

B. was; was    

C. is; was    

D. was; is

14. There ______ a ball and two books on the table just now.

A. is    

B. was    

C. were    

D. are

15. Last Sunday my aunt ______ at home with me. We were watching TV all day.

A. was    

B. were    

C. is    

D. are

真题链接

1. —What did you do for your mom on her birthday?

—I her a birthday cake.

A. buy

B. bought

C. will buy

D. have bought

2. — Has Mary ever visited Tower Bridge?

—Yes. She ______ it two years ago.

A. visits

B. visited

C. has visited

D. was visiting

3. —Will you see the film Cinderella with us tonight?

— No, I _________it last week.

A. see

B. have seen

C. saw

Ⅱ. 填空题。

A.用be动词的适当形式填空。

1. What ______ the name of your first teacher?

2. — ______ his brothers naughty?

— Yes, they ______. But they ______ well-behaved now.

3.— Where ______ you last night?

— I ______at my grandparents’ home.

4. Where ______ Yao Ming born?

5. My parents ______ in Shanghai in 2006.

B.用括号内所给动词的适当形式填空。

1. A girl _______ (cry) for help last night.

2. He _______(point) to the book he wanted.

3. I _______(open) the window after I got up.

4. He knocked on the door and _______(enter).

5. Tom jumped up and _______(rush) to the door.

参考答案

Ⅰ. 单项选择。

1. C。本句子的时间状语last night是表示过去的时间,所以用一般过去时,have/has的过去式是had。

2. B。本句子是考查一般过去时的一般疑问句,用助动词did构成,在did的后面用动词原形。

3. C。本句子是考查一般过去时的否定句,用助动词didn’t+动词原形构成。

4. C。从对话后面回答和时间状语last week可以判断是一般过去时,在问句中用助动词did+动词原形构成。后面的回答用一般过去时。write的过去式是wrote。

5. B。本题考查定语从句的时态,从句意为“手表是叔叔上个月给的”。由 “last month”可知用一般过去时,所以选B.

6. D。根据答语的last month,可知应该用一般过去时;一般过去时的特殊疑问句,助动词应该用did,后面接动词原形,所以答案为D。

7. B。根据答语可知,问句应该问“你的假期怎么样?”,所以疑问词用how。

8. D。根据答语可知,问句问的是地点,对地点的提问,应该用where。

9. C。根据答语中的two years ago可知用一般过去时,一般疑问句助动词用did。

10. A。根据答语中的last night可知用一般过去时,否定句用didn’t加动词原形,所以答案为A。

11. D。根据句中的时间状语yesterday可知用一般过去时。

12. B。根据时间状语last night可知用一般过去时;由因为主语是a film,所以应该用was。

13. D。根据句中的时间状语yesterday和today可知,第一个空用一般过去时,第二个空用一般现在时;因为主语是it,所以用was和is。

14. B。根据just now可知用一般过去时;there be句型要遵循“就近原则,由a ball决定谓语动词用单数形式,所以答案为B。

15. A。根据last Sunday可知用一般过去时,因为主语my aunt是单数,所以用was。

真题链接:

1. B。由问句中did可知是一般过去时,所以答语也用一般过去时。

2. B。two years ago是过去时间,一般与一般过去式连用,故选B。

3. C。从答句后面的last week可知该句要用一般过去时,故选C。

Ⅱ. 填空题。

A.用be动词的适当形式填空。

1. was 2. Were; were; are

3. were; was 4. was 5. were

B.用括号内所给动词的适当形式填空。

1. cried 2. pointed 3. opened

4. entered 5. rushed

写在最后

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